शनिवार, 24 अक्तूबर 2015

CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAM General Studies- IV: Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude, part 5

4. EFFICIENCY

Efficiency is a very important criterion for civil servant. Ultimate aim of Civil service is to deliver Public goods and services in a timely and efficient manner. Public supports officers who delivers, who provide solution of difficult problems, who creates an atmosphere of peace and development. For efficiency in administration, we require team building, proper planning and co-ordination, focussed attitude,innovation, getting to the root of problem and to provide solution for it. 


Friends, I am sharing with you summary of report prepared by DOPT and UNDP on Civil Service Competency Dictionary with my observation. You can read this report on link given below-
http://persmin.gov.in/otraining/Competency%20Dictionary%20for%20the%20Civil%20Services.pdf


4.1 Result Orientation
High Drive for achieving targets and competing against a standard of excellence.

• Works towards meeting timelines and expresses a desire to do better
• Is mindful of waste, inefficiency and red-tapism while discharging duties
• Consistently ensures on-time delivery of quality work
• Monitors efficiency of work practices and modifies them to provide better service
• Works to achieve tasks better, faster, and more efficiently; and looks to improve quality,
community satisfaction, and morale, without setting any specific goal
• Motivates, encourages others to set higher benchmarks and strive for superior performance
• Continually looks to adapt leading practices from other Departments/organisations to
improve performance
• Recognises and rewards innovation, setting higher benchmarks to create a culture of high
achievement
• Encourages and rewards continuous review and improvement of work processes
• Inspires individuals to consistently exceed performance targets

4.2 Conceptual Thinking
Understanding a situation or environment by putting the pieces together and identifying
patterns that may not be obviously related. Connecting the dots while resisting stereotyping

• Able to derive conscious rationale or its absence from recurring situations or events
• Creates own hypothesis to current situation or problem
• Makes complex ideas or situations clear, simple, and understandable
• Breaks-down a complex issue into a useful model or illustration
• Assembles ideas, issues, and observations into a clear and useful explanation
• Willing to experiment without being constrained by bias, stereotypes and traditional views
• Proposes alternative, radical hypotheses and tests them/keeps them in play
• Redefines the understanding of stakeholder and community needs

4.3 Initiative and Drive
Contributing more than what is expected in the job, refusing to give up when faced with
challenges, and finding or creating new opportunities

• Anticipates situations up to a year in advance, in order to plan action and build in
contingencies
• Creates an environment where individuals are willing and able to take initiative without
fearing consequences of failure

4.4 Seeking Information
An underlying curiosity to know more about things, people, or issues. This includes ‘digging’
for exact information and keeping up-to-date with relevant knowledge

• Studies best practices of other states, sectors, regions organisations etc
• Conducts field visits (if needed) to gain a comprehensive understanding of situation
• Identifies individuals or develops trusted sources to conduct regular information gathering
• Validates the veracity of informal information through other means and resources

4.5 Planning and Coordination
Ability to plan, organise and monitor work with effective utilisation of resources such as time,
money, and people

• Demonstrates good time management skills to meet short- and medium-term objectives
• Plans own work schedule and monitors progress against it optimally
• Uses available resources optimally to meet work objective
• Identifies and tries to solve bottlenecks in own area of work
• Monitors progress periodically and revises work plans as required
• Keeps oneself up-to-date and makes necessary adjustments to timelines, work plan, and
resource allocation as necessary

4.6 Desire for Knowledge
Keeps up-to-date with relevant knowledge and technology, shares latest developments with
others, and advocates the application of acquired knowledge.

• Keeps own policy and procedure binders (circulars, memorandums, OMs), working papers,
and ensures that files are up-to-date
• Proactively reads relevant literature to enhance knowledge of relevant practices  such as policy documents, external reports, or professional and Government journals
• Encourages and facilitates the acquisition of knowledge in others
• Suggests strategies to develop Departments’/Civil Services’ overall knowledge base


4.7 Innovative Thinking
Open to change, approaches issues differently, offers alternate/out of the box solutions and
strives for efficiency by working smartly.

• Seeks improvement in public service delivery through multiple methods such as technology,
efficient work practices etc
• Proactively engages with stakeholders for continuous improvement in service delivery
• Identifies bottlenecks and warning signs and initiates preventive action
• Prepared to meet the challenges of difficult change and encourages others in doing the
same
• Challenges the status quo and looks for unconventional solutions
• Encourages ideas, improvements and measured risk-taking to improve services
• Identifies & implements changes to transform flexibility, responsiveness, and quality of
service
• Creates a culture of innovation, flexibility and responsiveness, mobilising the Department
to respond swiftly to changing priorities

4.8 Problem Solving
Understanding a situation by breaking it into smaller parts, organising information
systematically, and setting priorities.

• Able to diagnose multiple cause and effect relationships in a problem (ability to see several
potential causes of an event or several events)
• Develops potential solutions and identifies risks involved
• Ability to see the holistic picture
• Creates solutions that address not only immediate issues (quick fixes) but also takes steps
for medium to long-term impact of the solutions

4.9 Developing Others
Genuinely believes in others’ capabilities to develop and takes personal responsibility for
their development. Creates a positive environment for learning and provides developmental
opportunities for individuals and teams.

• Encourages team members to develop learning and career plans and follows up to guide
their development and measure progress
• Takes risks on others to enable them to grow, by delegating responsibility and decisionmaking
• Provides mentoring support and direction to attain the team members’ learning needs for
the long-term development
• Builds capacity-development strategies to support career development for all employees

4.10 Self Awareness and Self Control
Identifies one’s own emotional triggers and controls one’s emotional responses. Maintains
a sense of professionalism and emotional restraint when provoked, faced with hostility
or working under increased stress. It includes resilience and stamina despite prolonged
adversities.

• Remains calm in stressful situations and listens to others’ point of view
• Has an honest understanding of own weaknesses and strengths
• Uses stress management techniques to deal with stress and control responses
• Responds constructively and professionally to extreme challenges, provocation and/or
professional disappointments
• Continues providing effective leadership in situations of stress or adversity
• Able to maintain focus and stamina for self and others in prolonged adversity
• Nurtures a culture to identify and dissolve stressors by better planning and analysing the
past instances

4.11 Communication Skills
Articulates information to others in language that is clear, concise, and easy to understand.
It also includes the ability to listen and understand unspoken feelings and concerns of
others.

• Conveys information, opinions and arguments fluently and confidently in a manner that
clearly explains the benefits of one’s proposition on different people in the society
• Adapts communication style to suit the situation
• Communicates complex issues clearly and credibly, to widely varied audiences
• Uses different forums, media vehicles, tailors messages accordingly to achieve optimum
results

4.12 Team-Working
Working together as a unit for the common goal. Building teams through mutual trust,
respect and cooperation

• Willingly complies with the team decisions, is a good team player, does his or her share of
the work
• Willingly gives support to co-workers and works collaboratively rather than competitively
• Shares all relevant information with the team members, provides ideas, inputs and
suggestions
• Solicits ideas and opinions to help form specific decisions or plans
• Displays willingness to learn from others, including subordinates and peers
• Genuinely values others’ expertise
• Incorporates others’ suggestions into planning and decision making
*Encourage others
• Works towards building positive team environment and addresses descriptive behaviour
such as threats, insults, stereotyping or exaggerations

 I hope that this blog post will help you in General Studies 4th paper and I hope that many of you will achieve success to provide efficient, effective, accountable, responsive and transparent governance as per vision of DoPT(GOI).

I sincerely acknowledge DOPT and UNDP for this Report. I hope that our Civil Service Aspirants will get full benefit of this report.
You can read full report on link given below-
http://persmin.gov.in/otraining/Competency%20Dictionary%20for%20the%20Civil%20Services.pdf

Best of luck,
Keshvendra Kuamar, IAS
District Collector, Wayand, Kerala

CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAM General Studies- IV: Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude, part 4

EQUITY
For a Civil Servant, equity is a very important concept. It is a constitution value. Summary of Chapter  on Equity from  'Civil Services Competency Dictionary'( GoI-UNDP Project: Strengthening Human Resource and Management of Civil Service) is being produced here for the benefit of our civil service aspirants.

Friends, I am sharing with you summary of this report with my observation. You can read this report on link given below-
http://persmin.gov.in/otraining/Competency%20Dictionary%20for%20the%20Civil%20Services.pdf

3.1 Consultation and Consensus Building
Ability to identify the stakeholders and influencers, seek their views and concerns through
formal and informal channels. Build consensus through dialogue, persuasion, reconciliation
of diverse views/interests and trusting relationships.

*Confidently presents views in a clear, concise and constructive manner
*Develops links with the experts and relevant information sources, proposes good solutions
to benefit the public
*Proactively Looks for Opportunities to Promote Convergence
*Helps to Align Diverse Interests to a Common Goal
*Promotes consensus building and Convergence

3.2 Decision Making
Makes timely decisions that take into account relevant facts, tasks, goals, constraints, risks
and conflicting points of view.

• Makes timely decisions, based on applicable rules or guidelines
• Clearly explains (verbally and in writing) the rationale behind each decision
• Maintains clear communication and transparency on the reasons for the decision taken
• Identifies relevant and credible information sources and collects new data, when necessary,
from internal and external sources
• Recognises scope of own authority for decision making and escalates to the appropriate
level if necessary
• Empowers team members to make decisions
• Demonstrates accountability and rises above bias when making decisions
• Demonstrates decisiveness when under pressure or faced with complex or sensitive
situation aligning with policy trend in that field.
• Analyses the impact of past decisions made and incorporates lessons learnt in future
decision making process
*Makes Decisions in Complex Situations
• Foresees impact of decisions on the society by conducting social cost-benefit analysis
• Foresees the unintended impact(s) of decisions and takes actions to overcome them
• Interprets political and national pressures to develop strategies that positively impact the
public good, especially for the benefit of the marginalised and disadvantaged
• Gives unbiased advice to Ministers based on the basis of robust analysis, and not on the
basis of what will be welcomed
Makes decisions for the good of the society (even if it leads to loss of personal popularity)
and defends them at the highest level when required

3.3 Empathy
Empathy is about being able to accurately hear out and understand the thoughts, feelings
and concerns of others, even when these are not made explicit.

• Demonstrates active listening skills (such as asking probing questions, not interrupting)
• Displays openness to diversity of opinion and adapts behaviour to be helpful and
considerate
• Is sensitive to underlying problems, and why people act or behave the way they do
• Demonstrates empathy by correctly understanding reactions or emotions of others
• Creates a culture of mutual trust and respect
• Encourages others to read deeper into others’ emotions by providing practical tips
• Creates the systems promoting empathy

3.4 Delegation
Delegates responsibility with the appropriate level of autonomy so that others are free to
innovate and take the lead.

*Provides Personal Guidance and Direction
• Expresses confidence in the ability of the team members to get the work done
• Delegates full authority and responsibility to team members to provide solutions for the
Government and community on agreed policies
• Creates a culture of trust and empowerment amongst team members

I sincerely acknowledge DOPT and UNDP for this Report. I hope that our Civil Service Aspirants will get full benefit of this report.
You can read full report on link given below-
http://persmin.gov.in/otraining/Competency%20Dictionary%20for%20the%20Civil%20Services.pdf

Best of luck,
Keshvendra Kuamar, IAS
District Collector, Wayand, Kerala

CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAM General Studies- IV: Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude, part 3

Friends, this is the most important chapter from 'Civil Services Competency Dictionary' GoI-UNDP Project: Strengthening Human Resource and Management of Civil Service. This chapter will help and guide you on so many complicated case studies. Summary of this chapter and my remarks are given below to help lots of civil service aspirants with expectation that when they come into service, they should uphold these expectations.

Friends, I am sharing with you summary of this report with my observation. You can read this report on link given below-
http://persmin.gov.in/otraining/Competency%20Dictionary%20for%20the%20Civil%20Services.pdf

ETHICS

2.1 Integrity
Consistently behaves in an open, fair, and transparent manner; honours one’s commitments;
and works to uphold the Public Service Values. Integrity can be summarised as to work without fear or favour for Public.

it is expected from a civil servant that He/She Acts Ethically. That means-
• Is open and honest in one’s dealings with others
• Honours commitments made to others
• Acts in ways to avoid conflict of interest - perceived or real – for example -by disclosing
potential issues on time
• Honest and open in all communications
• Gives frank and honest opinion when sought
• Follows the rules and regulations and is guided by Public Service values

• Does not share information loosely with others

Models the Values of the Civil Services
• Is guided by Public Interest in conflicting situations.
• Encourages others to consistently follow Public Service values
• Is trustworthy in all circumstances
• Treats people impartially, regardless of political, social, demographic, geographic,

circumstances or bias

Acts on Values even when it is not easy to do so
• Enforces law, public service values and rules of conduct even in difficult situations
• Has the courage and conviction to make and stand by the right decisions, even at significant
personal cost
• Provides honest and frank advice to uphold public interest

Is Seen Unflinching on Public ServiceValues
• Ensures full disclosure, by sharing the political implications of the decisions being made
• Challenges powerful and influential people, and holds them accountable to make the right
decisions
• Stands firm when dealing with unreasonable requests and demands

Is a Role Model
• Leads by example by maintaining high standards of professionalism and impartiality
• Takes accountability for own actions and creates a cultures for others also to take
accountability for their own actions
• Creates a culture that encourages open, honest, and ethical behaviour
• Holds people accountable to their actions and rewards those who demonstrate integrity
• Acts as a role model for courageous leadership by adopting a principled stance on critical issues

2.2 Self-Confidence
Belief in own capability to accomplish a task and being able to express confidence in dealing
with challenging circumstances, without being arrogant or boastful.

• Makes job-related decisions on his or her own, keeping in mind civil services’ values
• Able to say ‘No’ to all backed by a strong reason
• Acts confidently when the outcome benefits the public good, even when peers or partners
disagree
• Explicitly demonstrates confidence in own judgment
• Accepts responsibility for the consequences
• Able to articulate own point of view confidently and clearly even when in disagreement with
others
• Expresses own point of view clearly, confidently and politely when in disagreement with
senior officers, stakeholders, or others in power
• Acts in the favour of larger public good without being afraid of consequences
• Willingly takes on extremely challenging (that is, personally risky) tasks
• Challenges the status quo and is not afraid to take action, as long as the outcome is for the
betterment of the community
• Remains positive even under stressful conditions
• Explores multiple ways to overcome the challenge at hand

2.3 Attention to Detail
Having an underlying drive to being thorough and meticulous and to comply with procedures,
rules, guidelines, and standards. Digs deeper and strives to reduce uncertainties and
errors.

*Is knowledgeable of the policies and standards of his/her own department and adheres to
them while working
• Plans own work thoroughly and meticulously by using planning tools such as work plans,
checklists, etc and supports the introduction of better ways of working
• Ensures that breaches of regulatory requirements are treated with appropriate procedures
• Builds systemic checks and balances and is proactive and quick in resolving grievances
and issues
*Identifies loopholes and takes corrective measures to ensure unnecessary risks are
avoided

2.4 Taking Accountability
Takes ownership for outcomes (successes or failures) while addressing performance issues
fairly and promptly.

• Takes personal ownership for the quality of own work and keeps stakeholder informed
about the progress
• Remains focussed on delivery within specified timeframe

I sincerely acknowledge DOPT and UNDP for this Report. I hope that our Civil Service Aspirants will get full benefit of this report.
You can read full report on link given below-
http://persmin.gov.in/otraining/Competency%20Dictionary%20for%20the%20Civil%20Services.pdf

Best of luck,
Keshvendra Kuamar, IAS
District Collector, Wayand, Kerala

CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAM General Studies- IV: Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude, part 2

This is an important chapter from 'Civil Services Competency Dictionary' GoI-UNDP Project: Strengthening Human Resource and Management of Civil Service. This chapter will give you insight about what is expected from civil servant for our society and country. Summary of this chapter with my remark is given below for the benifit of civil service aspirants.

You can read full report on link given below-
http://persmin.gov.in/otraining/Competency%20Dictionary%20for%20the%20Civil%20Services.pdf

ETHOS of Civil Service/Public Service

1.1People First:- Passion for serving people with special care for the marginalised and disadvantaged. Being approachable, welcoming, caring and rising above bias while interacting with people. Understands the needs of the people and constantly strives to improve the services

it is expected from civil servants to-
 *Understands the needs of the marginalised and disadvantaged, along with the needs of the
wider public
• Strives to respond quickly to meet their needs in a respectful, helpful and responsive manner
• Reports issues that affect service delivery, where necessary
• Addresses all the issues of the citizens in an unbiased manner
• Ensures that levels of service are maintained – highlights risks or concerns in order to meet
community requirements
• Understanding the value of an affirmative action towards the marginalised and disadvantaged
 *Is accessible to all citizens and seeks their feedback to develop a clear understanding of their
needs and outcomes
• Establishes mechanisms to address feedback from the community about the service provided
Is a role model of positive community service behaviours
• Promotes a culture focussed on serving and meeting the needs of the citizens
Constantly improves service by managing risks and ensuring service delivery within
defined outcomes
*Incorporates elements of affirmative action into planning and strategy formulation

1.2) Strategic Thinking
Ability to understand dynamic internal and external environment and its impact.
Responds to the opportunities and challenges for the betterment of society.
expectations-
*Identifies bottleneck in existing systems and suggests steps to overcome them
*Anticipates the long-term impact of national and international developments in one’s area,
including economic, political, environmental, social, and technological

1.3) Organisational Awareness
Understanding of the organisation’s mandate, structure, policies, processes, norms
and its interface with other organisations. It also includes an understanding of the
organisation’s informal structures, power dynamics and constraints.
expectations-
-Demonstrates an in-depth understanding of the socio-political and economic context and
its implications
-Operates successfully in a variety of social, political, and cultural environments

1.4) Commitment to the organisation
Aligns behaviours and interests with the needs and goals of the organisations.
Expectations-
*Understands Civil Services values and acts accordingly
*Expresses pride, pleasure about being part of this organisation
• Promotes and/or defends the organisation’s credibility and visibility with outsiders
• Bargains and create goodwill for the organisation
• Pursues work with passion and dedication
*Strives to deliver at high standards to external and internal stakeholders
*Stands by decisions that benefit the larger organisation even if they are unpopular or
undercut the unit’s short-term good
Acts as per the Civil Services Values even under trying circumstances
*Acts as a role model
• Supports colleagues in making difficult decisions
• Is able to elicit commitment to the cause of the organisation from others (within and across
own organisation)
• Is able to make difficult decisions and stands by such decisions made by colleagues for the
larger benefit of the organisation

1.5) Leading Others- Ability to engage, energise, and enable the team to excel.
 *Openly and proactively shares information
• Explains the reasons for a decision taken
• Makes sure the team has all the necessary information
• Regularly updates team regarding changes and decisions made on related work
 *Formulates clear objectives for team members to perform
• Welcomes and takes into account positive as well as negative feedback
*Inspires people in rising to the challenge of meeting the goals of Civil Services

I hope that this article will be helpful for you for GS 4th paper. I sincerly acknowledge DOPT and UNDP for this wonderful doucment and I hope that through this blog it will reach to its true readers. I have taken relevant points in my view from the chapters. You can read full report on link given below-
http://persmin.gov.in/otraining/Competency%20Dictionary%20for%20the%20Civil%20Services.pdf
Best of luck,
Keshvendra Kumar, IAS,
District Collector, Wayanad, Kerala Best of luck.

Keshvendra Kumar, IAS
District Collector, Wayanad, Kerala

CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAM GENERAL STUDIES 4TH PAPER part 1

Friends, many of you ask about good books available for fourth paper of General studies of civil service mains examination. It is a fact that there is no comprehensive book available for this paper. It is a highly subjective paper where  opinion of examiner matters a lot. So, if you do have a mirror which reflects that what is expectation of government on these matters from you, that will be very much useful. Normally, Indian Constitution and Administrative Reforms Committed report is very much useful for this paper. Recently, I came across with a well written document prepared by Department of personnel and training, Govt. of India and United Nations Development programme named "Civil Services Competency Dictionary" and Tool Kit for its effective implentation. I assure you that it will be highly useful as it covers almost  half of your GS fourth paper syllabus including case studies. It gives you immense insight about expectation of UPSC or Government from you. It will help you a lot for case studies.

Syllabus of GS fourth paper for mains examination is reproduced below:-
General Studies- IV: Ethics, Integrity,
and Aptitude
This paper will include questions to test
the candidates' attitude and approach to
issues relating to integrity, probity in public
life and his problem solving approach
to various issues and conflicts faced by
him in dealing with society. Questions
may utilise the case study approach to
determine these aspects. The following
broad areas will be covered.
1.Ethics and Human Interface:
Essence, determinants and consequences
of Ethics in human
actions; dimensions of ethics;
ethics in private and public relationships.
Human Values - lessons
from the lives and teachings
of great leaders, reformers and
administrators; role of family, society
and educational institutions in
inculcating values.
2.Attitude: content, structure, function;
its influence and relation with
thought and behaviour; moral and
political attitudes; social influence
and persuasion.
3.Aptitude and foundational values
for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality
and non-partisanship, objectivity,
dedication to public service,
empathy, tolerance and compassion
towards the weaker-sections.
4.Emotional intelligence-concepts,
and their utilities and application in
administration and governance.
5.Contributions of moral thinkers and
philosophers from India and world.
6.Public/Civil service values and
Ethics in Public administration:
Status and problems; ethical concerns
and dilemmas in government
and private institutions; laws,
rules, regulations and conscience
as sources of ethical guidance;
accountability and ethical governance;
strengthening of ethical
and moral values in governance;
ethical issues in international relations
and funding; corporate governance.
7.Probity in Governance: Concept of
public service; Philosophical basis
of governance and probity;
Information sharing and transparency
in government, Right to
Information, Codes of Ethics,
Codes of Conduct, Citizen's
Charters, Work culture, Quality of
service delivery, Utilization of public
funds, challenges of corruption.
8.Case Studies on above issues.
------------------------------------------------------------------

Friends, I am sharing with you summary of this report with my observation. You can read this report on link given below-
http://persmin.gov.in/otraining/Competency%20Dictionary%20for%20the%20Civil%20Services.pdf

Competencies are those underlying characteristics of an employee – motive, trait, skill, aspects of one’s social image, social role or a body of knowledge, which can result in effective and/or superior performance in a job or role’.


Knowledge &  Skill- Knowledge is the operational or technical understanding
a person has about something and skills are the things a person can do.
Social Role-Social role relates to how we project ourselves in our roles.
Self Image-Self-image relates to the attitudes and values we hold,
what is important to us as individuals, and how we feel about ourselves.
Traits-
Traits are the characteristics or consistent responses of someone. For example, someone may demonstrate the trait of self-control consistently when confronted. . A person’s traits may be very helpful in a job, especially when the job calls for the kind of traits a person has.

Motives-Motives are the things a person consistently thinks about or wants, which cause them to take action. For example, a person may be highly achievement-oriented and this may drive their performance on the job. Or a person may be motivated by affiliation or friendship and this may drive their performance because the job involves dealing with many people


Characteristics of Good Governance
Accountability, Transparency, Equity and Inclusiveness, Participatory, Consensus Orientation,
Following Rule of Law, Effectiveness and Efficiency


Competency Framework for the Indian Civil Services

ETHOS
-Exhibits citizen
centricity
and
inclusiveness,
promotes
public
good and
long-term
interests of the
Nation
ETHICS
Demonstrates
integrity,
transparency,
openness and
fairness
EQUITY
Treats all
citizens alike,
ensures justice
to all, with
empathy
for the weaker
section
EFFICIENCY
Promotes
operational
excellence and
value for
money,
manages
human capital
and nurtures
capability


This report is divided in following topics-
1. Ethos |  1.1 People First |  1.2 Strategic Thinking |  1.3 Organisational Awareness |  1.4 Commitment to the Organisation |  1.5 Leading Others |
2. Ethics |  2.1 Integrity |  2.2 Self-Confidence |  2.3 Attention to detail |  2.4 Taking Accountability
3. Equity |  3.1 Consultation and Consensus Building |  3.2 Decision Making |  3.3 Empathy |  3.4 Delegation
4. Efficiency |  4.1 Result Orientation |  4.2 Conceptual Thinking |  4.3 Initiative and Drive | 4.4 Seeking Information |  4.5 Planning and Coordination |  4.6 Desire for Knowledge |  4.7 Innovative Thinking |  4.8 Problem Solving |  4.9 Developing Others |  4.10 Self Awareness and Self Control |  4.11 Communication Skills |  4.12 Team-Working


in next part of my article, I'll come to the topics one by one.

I sincerly acknowledge DOPT and UNDP for this wonderful doucment and I hope that through this blog it will reach its future target audience- Aspiring civil servants.
Best of luck,
Keshvendra Kumar, IAS,
District Collector, Wayanad, Kerala

सिविल सेवा मुख्य परीक्षा के सामान्य अध्ययन के चौथे प्रश्न पत्र की तैयारी - पहली कड़ी

साथियों, आप में से कई लोगों ने  सिविल सेवा मुख्य परीक्षा के सामान्य अध्ययन का चौथा प्रश्न पत्र कैसे तैयार करे, इस पर मुझसे सलाह मांगी है | इस प्रश्न की प्रकृति ऐसी है कि इस पर अभी तक कोई समग्र पुस्तक उपलब्ध नहीं है | यह एक काफी हद तक वस्तुनिष्ठ पत्र है जिसमे परीक्षक की दृष्टि काफी मायने रखती है | इसलिए, अगर आपके पास एक ऐसा आईना हो जो आपको यह दिखा सके कि यूपीएससी एवं  सरकार  इन विषयों पर आपसे क्या अपेक्षा रखती है, तो वह आप लोगों के लिए काफी महत्त्वपूर्ण होगा | इस प्रश्न पत्र की तैयारी में भारत के संविधान, प्रशासनिक सुधार आयोग की रिपोर्ट काफी लाभदायक है | इसके अलावा अच्छे पत्र पत्रिकाओं के प्रशासन से सम्बंधित आलेख भी काफी मददगार है | हाल में ही मैं भारत सरकार के Department of personnel and training (DOPT) एवं  United Nations Development programme(UNDP) के द्वारा तैयार किये "सिविल सेवा सक्षमता शब्दकोष " से रूबरू हुआ और मेरे मानना है की सामान्य अध्ययन के चौथे पत्र की तयारी में यह कम्पास की तरह आपको दिशा दिखा सकता है | इस पुस्तिका से कम से कम इस पत्र का आधे से ज्यादा भाग पूर्ण हो जाता है  और केस स्टडी के प्रश्नों को हल करने में भी आपको इससे काफी मदद मिलती है |

इस रिपोर्ट की प्रधान बातें मैं संक्षेप में अपनी टिप्पणियों और अपने अनुवाद के साथ आप लोगों के सम्मुख रख रहा हूँ | इस रिपोर्ट में अच्छे प्रशासन और प्रशासक से ये अपेक्षाएं हैं-
Characteristics of Good Governance (सुशासन के लक्षण )
Accountability, Transparency, Equity and Inclusiveness, Participatory, Consensus Orientation,



Following Rule of Law, Effectiveness and Efficiency 
उत्तरदायित्व , पारदर्शिता , समता एवं समावेशन , सबको साथ लेकर चलना, आम सहमति पर जोर, नियमबद्ध शासन,प्रभावक्षम एवं  दक्ष 
इस रिपोर्ट में सक्षमता पर जोर दिया गया है | इस रिपोर्ट में सक्षमता को इस प्रकार परिभाषित किया गया है -


Competencies are those underlying characteristics of an employee – motive, trait, skill, aspects of one’s social image, social role or a body of knowledge, which can result in effective and/or superior performance in a job or role’.
सक्षमता  किसी व्यक्ति के उद्देश्य, गुण, दक्षता, सामाजिक  छवि , समाज में रोल, एवं ज्ञान का योग है जो किसी कार्य को सुचारू रूप से करने में उसे  समर्थ  बनाती है |

सक्षमता के विविध अंगों की इस रिपोर्ट में इस तरह से बताया गया है -

Knowledge & Skill- Knowledge is the operational or technical understanding a person has about something and skills are the things a person can do. व्यक्ति की कार्य के बारे में ज्ञान और दक्षता 
Social Role-Social role relates to how we project ourselves in our roles- समाज में व्यक्ति किस  तरह अपनी भूमिका को देखता है |
Self Image-Self-image relates to the attitudes and values we hold, what is important to us as individuals, and how we feel about ourselves.-आत्मछवि  एक व्यक्ति के तौर पर आप कैसे छवि लोगों के सामने रखना चाहते हैं, उसको बताती है |
Traits-
Traits are the characteristics or consistent responses of someone. For example, someone may demonstrate the trait of self-control consistently when confronted. . A person’s traits may be very helpful in a job, especially when the job calls for the kind of traits a person has.
प्रवृत्ति दिखाती है की व्यक्ति दिए हुए परिस्तिथियों में किस तरह बर्ताव करेगा |

Motives-Motives are the things a person consistently thinks about or wants, which cause them to take action. For example, a person may be highly achievement-oriented and this may drive their performance on the job. Or a person may be motivated by affiliation or friendship and this may drive their performance because the job involves dealing with many people
उद्देश्य आप क्या बनाना या पाना चाहते है, उसे बताती है | एक अच्छे प्रशासक के लिए संविधान एवं नियमों में आस्था के साथ जनकल्याण सदुदेश्य है

 |Competency Framework for the Indian Civil Services
भारतीय  सिविल सेवा के लिए सक्षमता ढांचा 

ETHOS (नैतिक  विचार एवं मूल्य )
-Exhibits citizen centricity and inclusiveness, promotes public good and long-term interests of the Nation
ETHICS (नीति शास्त्र )
Demonstrates integrity, transparency, openness and fairness
EQUITY (समता )
Treats all citizens alike, ensures justice to all, with empathy for the weaker section
EFFICIENCY (कार्यकुशलता )
Promotes operational excellence and value for money, manages human capital and nurtures capability


इस रिपोर्ट का हिंदी अनुवाद मुझे नहीं मिल पाया, इसलिए मैं इस रिपोर्ट की मुख्य बातों को अपनी टिप्पणियों के साथ पोस्ट कर रहा हूँ. इस रिपोर्ट के प्रमुख विषय निम्नलिखित है-
1. Ethos |  1.1 People First |  1.2 Strategic Thinking |  1.3 Organisational Awareness |  1.4 Commitment to the Organisation |  1.5 Leading Others |
2. Ethics |  2.1 Integrity |  2.2 Self-Confidence |  2.3 Attention to detail |  2.4 Taking Accountability
3. Equity |  3.1 Consultation and Consensus Building |  3.2 Decision Making |  3.3 Empathy |  3.4 Delegation
4. Efficiency |  4.1 Result Orientation |  4.2 Conceptual Thinking |  4.3 Initiative and Drive | 4.4 Seeking Information |  4.5 Planning and Coordination |  4.6 Desire for Knowledge |  4.7 Innovative Thinking |  4.8 Problem Solving |  4.9 Developing Others |  4.10 Self Awareness and Self Control |  4.11 Communication Skills |  4.12 Team-Working
इस लेख की आगे की कड़ियों में मैं एक-एक कर के इसके सिलेबस के हिसाब से महत्वपूर्ण टॉपिक्स की चर्चा करूँगा.
मुख्य परीक्षा की तैयारियों के लिए आप लोगों को ढेर सारी शुभकामनाएं |

पूरी रिपोर्ट पढने के लिए इस लिंक पर क्लिक करे-
http://persmin.gov.in/otraining/Competency%20Dictionary%20for%20the%20Civil%20Services.pdf

केशवेन्द्र कुमार, आईएएस
जिला कलक्टर, वायनाड, केरल

शुक्रवार, 23 अक्तूबर 2015

हिंदी भाषा एवं साहित्य वैकल्पिक विषय के साथ सिविल सेवा की तैयारी - पहला भाग

दोस्तों, सिविल सेवा परीक्षा के आंकड़ों को देखे तो वैकल्पिक विषय के तौर पर हिंदी भाषा और साहित्य के साथ अन्य भारतीय भाषाओं तथा साहित्य को वैकल्पिक विषय के तौर पर लेकर सफल होने वाले अभ्यर्थियों की संख्या दिन-पर-दिन बढती जा रही है | सिर्फ सफलता ही नहीं, भारतीय भाषाओं को वैकल्पिक विषय के तौर पर लेने वाले छात्रों ने कई बार इस परीक्षा में प्रथम स्थान तक लाया है | साहित्य को एक वैकल्पिक विषय के रूप में लेकर सिविल सेवा में बैठने वाले छात्रों की संख्या भी  काफी तेजी से बढ़ रही है | मेरे बैच अर्थात 2008 में आईएस में 10 के आसपास ऐसे छात्र थे जिन्होंने एक विषय हिंदी साहित्य रखा था | इस विषय में अंक भी काफी अच्छे आ रहे हैं | हिंदी माध्यम में वैकल्पिक विषय के रूप में यह सबसे लोकप्रिय विषयों में से एक के रूप में उभर रहा है | अभी के नए पैटर्न में जहाँ एक ही वैकल्पिक विषय रखना है, हिंदी की वैकल्पिक विषय के रूप में महत्ता और भी बढ़ेगी, इसमें कोई संदेह नहीं |

कैसे छात्र रखे हिंदी वैकल्पिक विषय सिविल सेवा परीक्षा के लिए-
हर छात्र की विषय विशेष के प्रति अपनी रुचि और रुझान होता है | हिंदी वैकल्पिक विषय वैसे छात्रों के लिए उपयुक्त है जिन्होंने-
-बी.ए./एम.ए. में हिंदी भाषा और साहित्य पढ़ा है और इस विषय पर उनकी अच्छी पकड़ है |
-वैसे छात्र जिन्होंने स्नातक या पीजी के स्तर पर हिंदी नही पढ़ी है पर  हिंदी भाषा और साहित्य में जिनकी गहन रुचि है और जो हिंदी में अपने विचारों को शुद्धता और स्पष्टता के साथ आसानी से रख लेते हैं |
-वैसे छात्र जो हिंदी में रचनात्मक क्षमता रखते हैं और हिंदी की किसी भी विधा में लेखन में लगे हैं |
-वैसे छात्र जिनकी शिक्षा हिंदी माध्यम से है और जिन्हें हिंदी भाषा में प्रभावी अभिव्यक्ति में कोई दिक्कत नहीं है |



 यदि अपने स्नातक या स्नातकोत्तर किसी स्तर पर हिंदी साहित्य का अध्ययन किया है, या फिर हिंदी में रचनात्मक लेखन में आपकी अच्छी रूचि हो और आप किसी विषय पर अपने विचारों को सहज-सरल भाषा में प्रभावशाली रूप में अभिव्यक्त कर सकते हैं तो फिर यह विषय आपके लिए ही बना है. यह विषय सामान्य अध्ययन में तो आपको कोई फायदा नही पहुंचाता  पर निबंध पत्र में आपको काफी अच्छे नंबर लाने  में जरुर सहायता पहुंचाता है.

सिविल सेवा परीक्षा के लिए हिंदी भाषा और साहित्य वैकल्पिक विषय का पाठ्यक्रम

मुख्य परीक्षा में हिंदी वैकल्पिक विषय के 250 अंकों के दो पत्र (कुल 500 अंक )हैं | पहला पत्र हिंदी भाषा और साहित्य के इतिहास पर केन्द्रित है | दूसरे पत्र में हिंदी साहित्य की विभिन्न विधाओं की कृतियों का आस्वादन और उनपर केन्द्रित सवाल पूछे जायेंगे |

हिंदी प्रश्नपत्र 1
(उत्तर हिंदी में लिखने होंगे )
खंड 'क'
1.हिंदी भाषा एवं नागरी लिपि का इतिहास

१)अपभ्रंश, अवहट्ट एवं आरम्भिक हिंदी का व्याकरणिक एवं अनुप्रयुक्त स्वरुप
२)मध्यकाल में ब्रज एवं अवधी का साहित्यिक भाषा के रूप में विकास
३)सिद्धनाथ साहित्य, खुसरो, संत साहित्य, रहीम आदि कवियों एवं दक्खिनी हिंदी में खड़ी बोली हिंदी का प्रारंभिक स्वरुप
४)उन्नीसवीं शताब्दी में खड़ी बोली और नागरी लिपि का विकास
५)हिंदी भाषा और नागरी लिपि का मानकीकरण
६)स्वतंत्रता आन्दोलन के दौरान राष्ट्रभाषा के रूप में हिंदी का विकास
७)भारतीय संघ की राजभाषा के रूप में हिंदी का विकास
८)हिंदी भाषा का वैज्ञानिक और तकनीकी विकास
९)हिंदी की प्रमुख बोलियां और उनका परस्पर सम्बन्ध
१०)नागरी लिपि की प्रमुख विशेषताएँ और उसके सुधार के प्रयास तथा मानक हिंदी का स्वरुप
११)मानक हिंदी की व्याकरणिक संरचना

खंड 'ख'
2. हिंदी साहित्य का इतिहास 
१)हिंदी साहित्य की प्रासंगिकता और महत्त्व तथा हिंदी साहित्य के इतिहास लेखन की परंपरा
 २) हिंदी साहित्य के इतिहास के निम्नलिखित चार कालों की साहित्यिक प्रवृतियाँ
क) आदिकाल- सिद्ध, नाथ एवं रासो साहित्य
    प्रमुख कवि- चंदरवरदाई, खुसरो, हेमचन्द्र, विद्यापति
ख) भक्तिकाल- संत काव्यधारा, सूफी काव्यधारा, कृष्णभक्तिधारा एवं रामभक्तिधारा
     प्रमुख कवि- कबीर, जायसी, सूर एवं तुलसी
ग) रीतिकाल- रीतिकाव्य, रीतिबद्ध काव्य एवं रीतिमुक्त काव्य
     प्रमुख कवि- केशव, बिहारी, पद्माकर एवं घनानंद
घ) आधुनिक काल
   *नवजागरण, गद्य का विकास, भारतेंदु मंडल
   *प्रमुख लेखक- भारतेंदु, बालकृष्ण भट्ट एवं प्रताप नारायण मिश्र
   *आधुनिक हिंदी कविता की प्रमुख प्रवृतियाँ : छायावाद, प्रगतिवाद, प्रयोगवाद, नयी कविता, नवगीत,       समकालीन कविता और जनवादी कविता
 प्रमुख कवि- मैथिलीशरण गुप्ता, प्रसाद, निराला, महादेवी, दिनकर, अज्ञेय, मुक्तिबोध, नागार्जुन

३) कथा साहित्य 
 क)उपन्यास और यथार्थवाद
 ख)हिंदी उपन्यासों का उद्भव और विकास
 ग) प्रमुख उपन्यासकार - प्रेमचंद, जैनेन्द्र, यशपाल, रेणु एवं भीष्म साहनी

 घ) हिंदी कहानी का उद्भव और विकास
 ड.)प्रमुख कहानीकार - प्रेमचंद, प्रसाद, अज्ञेय, मोहन राकेश एवं कृष्णा सोबती

४) नाटक और रंगमंच
 क)हिंदी नाटक का उद्भव और विकास
 ख) प्रमुख नाटककार - भारतेंदु, जयशंकर प्रसाद, जगदीश चन्द्र माथुर, रामकुमार वर्मा, मोहन राकेश
 ग) हिंदी रंगमंच का विकास

५) आलोचना 
 क)हिंदी आलोचना का उद्भव एवं विकास
   सैधांतिक, व्यवहारिक, प्रगतिवादी, मनोविश्लेषणवादी एवं नयी आलोचना
  ख) प्रमुख आलोचक- रामचंद्र शुक्ल, हजारी प्रसाद द्विवेदी, रामविलास वर्मा एवं नगेन्द्र

६) हिंदी गद्य की अन्य विधाएँ 
  ललित निबंध, रेखाचित्र, संस्मरण, यात्रा-वृतांत




प्रश्न पत्र -2
(उत्तर हिंदी में लिखने होंगे )

इस प्रश्न पत्र में निर्धारित मूल पाठ्य पुस्तकों को पढना अपेक्षित होगा और ऐसे प्रश्न पूछे जायेंगे जिससे अभ्यर्थी की आलोचनात्मक क्षमता की परीक्षा हो सके |

खंड 'क' 

1. कबीर : कबीर ग्रंथावली, संपादक श्यामसुंदर दास (आरंभिक 100 पद )
2. सूरदास: भ्रमरगीत सार, संपादक रामचंद्र शुक्ल (आरंभिक 100 पद )
3. तुलसीदास: रामचरितमानस (सुंदर कांड)
                      कवितावली (उत्तरकाण्ड )
4. जायसी : पद्मावत, संपादक श्यामसुंदर दास (सिंघल द्वीप खंड एवं नागमती वियोग खंड)
5. बिहारी : बिहारी रत्नाकर, संपादक जगन्नाथ प्रसाद रत्नाकर ( आरंभिक 100 दोहे )
6. मैथिली शरण गुप्त : भारत भारती
7. जयशंकर प्रसाद : कामायनी (चिंता और श्रद्धा सर्ग )
8. सूर्यकांत त्रिपाठी निराला : राग-विराग, संपादक रामविलास शर्मा ('राम की शक्ति पूजा' और 'कुकुरमुत्ता' )
9. रामधारी सिंह दिनकर : कुरुक्षेत्र
10. अज्ञेय : आँगन के पार द्वार (असाध्य वीणा )
11. मुक्तिबोध : ब्रह्मराक्षस
12. नागार्जुन : बादल को घिरते देखा है, अकाल के बाद, हरिजन गाथा


खंड 'ख'

1. भारतेंदु : भारत दुर्दशा
2. मोहन राकेश : आषाढ़ का एक दिन
3. रामचंद्र शुक्ल : चिंतामणि (भाग 1)- 'कविता क्या है' , 'श्रद्धा और भक्ति'
4. डॉ सत्येन्द्र : निबंध निलय - बालकृष्ण भट्ट, प्रेमचंद, गुलाब राय, हजारी प्रसाद द्विवेदी, राम विलास शर्मा, अज्ञेय, कुबेर नाथ राय
5. प्रेमचंद : गोदान
                प्रेमचंद की सर्वश्रेष्ट कहानियां, संपादक अमृत राय / मंजूषा- प्रेमचंद की सर्वश्रेष्ठ कहानियां, संपादक अमृत राय
6.जयशंकर प्रसाद : स्कंदगुप्त
7.यशपाल : दिव्या
8. फणीश्वर नाथ रेणु : मैला आँचल
9. मन्नू भंडारी : महाभोज
10.राजेंद्र यादव : एक दुनिया समानांतर( सभी कहानियां)




हिंदी विषय के लिए संक्षिप्त पुस्तक सूची इस प्रकार है-

प्रथम पत्र

१. हिंदी भाषा : हरदेव बाहरी

२. हिंदी भाषा का विकास : गोपाल राय

३. इग्नू से हिंदी भाषा एवं साहित्य में  स्नातक(BA) व स्नातकोत्तर(MA) के भाषा एवं साहित्येतिहास खंड के नोट्स| इग्नू की किताबों से आप कवियों एवं साहित्यकारों के बारे में, हिंदी साहित्य के इतिहास के बारे में सम्यक तैयारी कर सकते हैं |  पहले प्रश्न पत्र का एक बड़ा हिस्सा इग्नू की इन किताबों से पूरा किया जा सकता है | इनकी आपकी पूरी तयारी में लगभग पचास से साठ प्रतिशत तक भूमिका रहेगी |

४. हिंदी साहित्य एवं संवेदना का विकास : रामस्वरूप चतुर्वेदी



द्वितीय प्रश्न पत्र

१.भारत दुर्दशा- संवेदना व शिल्पा : रेवती रमण / सिद्धनाथ कुमार

२.मोहन राकेश और अषाढ़ का एक दिन - गिरीश रस्तोगी

३.महाकाव्य से मुक्ति - रेवती रमण

४. चिंतामणि प्रकाश - रेवती रमण

५. प्रसाद और स्कदगुप्त -रेवती रमण

६. सूरदास और भ्रमरगीत सार -डॉ किशोरीलाल*

७.कबीर साखी सुधा- डॉ वासुदेव सिंह *

८.प्रेमचंद की कहानिया :सादगी का सौंदर्य शास्त्र - डॉ सदानंद शाही



* मूल पाठ्य पुस्तक खरीदने की जरुरत नहीं, आलोचना और मूल पुस्तक दोनों एक साथ हैं |



(ऊपर दी गई अधिकांश पुस्तके अनुपम प्रकाशन (पटना) या राजकमल या वाणी प्रकाशनों द्वारा प्रकाशित है

द्वारा प्रकाशित है . .

द्वितीय प्रश्न पत्र में अन्य मूल किताबे खरीदनी हैं .)




किताबों के अलावा छात्र कुछ साहित्यिक पत्रिकाएँ यथा आजकल, नया ज्ञानोदय, तद्भव, कथन, कथादेश आदि में से कोई एक या दो ,नियमित रूप से ले सकते हैं. साथ ही हिंदी में इन्टरनेट पर उपलब्ध सामग्री में www.hindisamay.com तथा कविताकोश एवं कहानी कोष का सन्दर्भ के तौर पर प्रयोग कर सकते हैं. पुस्तक मेलों में भी आपको अपनी पसंद की तथा नई- नई पुस्तकों के बारे में जानकारी मिलेगी |

मेरी अपनी राय में हिंदी भाषा पर अच्छी पकड़ रखने वाले छात्रों के लिए या फिर उन छात्रों के लिए जिनका हिंदी साहित्य से गहरा अनुराग है, वे हिंदी भाषा एवं साहित्य वैकल्पिक विषय के साथ अपना आईएएस, आईपीएस , आईएफएस एवं अन्य प्रतिष्ठित केंद्रीय सेवाओं में जाने का अपना सपना पूरा कर सकते हैं | इस विषय के साथ सिविल सेवा की तैयारी में जुटे साथियों की मदद के लिए मैं यथासंभव मदद के लिए तत्पर रहूँगा |
शुभकामनाओं के साथ,

केशवेन्द्र कुमार , आईएएस
जिला कलक्टर, वायनाड, केरल